This latest report from RUSI, is the latest in its Project Sandstone intended to effort to systematically analyse and expose North Korean illicit shipping networks. For this report, Project Sandstone attempted to map business networks in the border city of Dandong that were active in 2017, the last year for which this commercial data is currently available. It finds evidence of Chinese companies involved in various illicit activities including brokering, sale and importation of North Korean resources abroad at times when UN sanctions either limited or prohibited such trade; ownership and operation of North Korean-flagged ships engaged in the prohibited export of coal and import of oil; advertising North Korean machine tools likely manufactured by sanctions-designated entities engaged in and supporting North Korea’s WMD programmes; advertising other dual-use goods of North Korean origin on Chinese trade platforms; and the possible export of dual-use and other prohibited items to North Korea.
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