A report from Conflict Armament Research says that a wide spectrum of materials can be used to manufacture improvised explosive devices (IED). These include both military and civilian commercial products. The variety in design and means of deployment of IED vastly complicates efforts to regulate and control their proliferation. The UN General Assembly has repeatedly stressed the urgent need to prevent illicit actors from obtaining and using materials to produce IED. CAR investigators have been working to document and trace components, subcomponents, and materials like commercial explosives that can be used to create IED. The report presents case studies from CAR investigations that demonstrate examples of upstream IED prevention in action. It highlights the importance of field documentation, analysis, and tracing to provide governments, manufacturers, and distributors with verified evidence on patterns of illicit production and procurement of IED materials.