The RAND Corporation has published this report saying that the UN imposed increasingly restrictive sanctions on North Korea after each of the six nuclear weapons tests that it conducted between 2009 and 2016. However, enforcement of those sanctions has been mixed. It describes the multilateral arms control mechanisms available and sanctions regimes imposed on North Korea to contain its proliferation activities and bring that country back into compliance with international law. It details the various entities involved in North Korean sanctions evasion activities and proceeds to use case studies to illustrate North Korea’s principal sanctions evasion techniques in 4 general areas of sanctions evasion activity: hard-currency generation, restricted and dual-use technology acquisition, covert transport, and covert finance. It says that 4 types of entities are involved in North Korea’s sanctions evasion: North Korean government officials accredited to North Korea’s embassies, North Korean overseas workers, front and shell companies, and trusted third-party intermediaries. North Korea is said to “active” in 38 African countries, and has aided or fuelled ballistic missile programmes in the Middle East.
Preventing North Korean Proliferation Activities
On 23 September, the RAND Corporation published an article saying that the UN has raised concerns about the widespread presence of North Korean nationals in Africa and their involvement in prohibited activities. For example, it says, North Korea engages in proliferation related activities in 38 of 54 African countries, and North Korea proliferates weapons to 13 African countries. RAND’s National Security Research Division assisted the US Department of State in producing guides, other supporting materials that explain why North Korean proliferation activities matter, and steps that can be taken to mitigate those activities. The project’s first 2 reports are available for download now. A third report on strategic trade controls is forthcoming.
North Korea sanctions: Countering DPRK Proliferation Activities
How does North Korea Evade Sanctions?