On 20 September, the Environmental Investigation Agency reported on a new briefing document which outlines its findings and recommendations on the key issues relating to global illegal pangolin trade. All 8 species of the animal are listed under CITES. Despite this, since 2017 almost 300 tonnes of pangolin scales seized globally. Many of these have been trafficked from West, Central and East Africa to Vietnam and China, where they are used in traditional medicine. Pangolin scales are trafficked by transnational criminal networks that operate with high levels of impunity. It is said that the EIA recognises that there are 2 key factors driving the global illegal pangolin trade – the role of consumer demand in China, where pharmaceutical companies and hospitals can legally produce and sell traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products containing pangolin scales; and a lack of fair and effective criminal justice responses to address the involvement of transnational criminal networks in pangolin trafficking.