On 31 August, KYC 360 reported that roughly 28% of Brazilian gold exports in 2019 and 2020 likely came from illegal mines, according to a report by public prosecutors and the Federal University of Minas Gerais found, and pointing to widespread forging of documents and lack of effective law enforcement.  So-called “wildcat” miners in Brazil often extract gold from areas where no mining is allowed, such as protected nature reserves or indigenous land.

Any modest contributions for my time and ongoing expenses are welcomed!  I have a page where you can do so, and where one-off contributions start as low as $3, at

Author: raytodd2017

Chartered Legal Executive and former senior manager with Isle of Man Customs and Excise, where I was (amongst other things) Sanctions Officer (for UN/EU sanctions), Export Licensing Officer and Manager of the Legal-Library & Collectorate Support Section

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