The UN Office of Drugs and Crime has published this guide which says that the estimated cost of corruption in the health-care sector is already very high under normal circumstances.  For instance, in 2008, WHO estimated that out of $5.7 trillion spent world-wide on health, $415 billion (around 7.3%) was lost to health-related fraud and abuse.  It says that preventing corruption in the health-care sector is critical because of the undue risk it poses to human lives; and that it is essential, therefore, that states and health-care sector organisations establish safeguards and oversight mechanisms to prevent corruption.  The guidelines provide a step-by-step process that an organisation can follow to establish internal policies and procedures that facilitate the disclosure of allegations of wrongdoing and protect reporting persons.  The guidelines include the information necessary to establish an open and fair reporting culture that encourages people to speak up early when they have a concern.

Any modest contributions for my time and ongoing expenses are welcomed!  I have a page where you can do so, and where contributions start as low as $3, at

Author: raytodd2017

Chartered Legal Executive and former senior manager with Isle of Man Customs and Excise, where I was (amongst other things) Sanctions Officer (for UN/EU sanctions), Export Licensing Officer and Manager of the Legal-Library & Collectorate Support Section

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