On 15 January, the Centre for European Policy Studies published a report saying that recent US measures directed against Iran, Cuba and Russia (re North Stream 2) have indirectly become a critical challenge for the EU as well, and that a review of the existing sanction regimes and of the geopolitical context reveals that other international players, including China, may follow suit in using such measures. The report shows that extraterritorial sanctions have considerable economic implications, particularly for the EU and its vulnerabilities. Extraterritorial sanctions also raise critical questions as to their legality under general international law, WTO law and other specific international rules. The EU is especially affected by these measures and has already taken some measures of its own in response. These could be improved and additional measures taken, as the policy recommendations set out.
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