A paper from the EU Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Consortium says that converted firearms currently represent one of the main and growing firearm-related threats in Europe, including weapons which had been sold legally as non-lethal weapons within the EU but were subsequently illicitly modified to fire lethal-purpose ammunition. The EU reviewed and amended the 1991 Firearms Directive in 2017, and reinforced multilateral police cooperation. The paper examines the issue of converted firearms in Europe as of June 2020 and considers 5 EU case study countries: Czechia, France, the Netherlands, Slovakia and Spain. The paper concludes that the modification of blank ammunition into lethal rounds for use in converted alarm weapons has evolved from a primarily artisanal process to one that is now more significant in scale, including the use of fast parcel services and of the internet.
I had omitted the following link (as it did not seem to generate much interest!), but it seemed time to add it again and say that, if you would like to make a (polite) gesture and help me with my removal and computer costs, I have a page at https://www.buymeacoffee.com/KoIvM842y