The Civil Society Observatory of Illicit Economies in Eastern and Southern Africa – Risk Bulletin #11 from the Global Initiative Against Transnational Crime includes an article saying that Madagascar is home to some of the world’s rarest tortoise species, which in recent years have fetched enormous prices on international black markets. It also boasts a booming market for illegal cannabis, both for domestic consumption and for export to other Indian Ocean island states.  Recent research into both has found them to rely on extensive networks of corrupt officials to facilitate trafficking flows. This drives local level corruption in source regions for cannabis and tortoises, as well as in key transit points on trafficking routes, which may overlap with the routes of other illicit flows.

I had omitted the following link (as it did not seem to generate much interest!), but it seemed time to add it again and say that, if you would like to make a (polite) gesture and help me with my removal and computer costs, I have a page at

Author: raytodd2017

Chartered Legal Executive and former senior manager with Isle of Man Customs and Excise, where I was (amongst other things) Sanctions Officer (for UN/EU sanctions), Export Licensing Officer and Manager of the Legal-Library & Collectorate Support Section

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