In the UK, the NAO has published a report saying that the challenges in tackling serious and organised crime are formidable. There are more than 4,500 identified UK organised crime groups operating in changing and often unpredictable ways. The government estimated that the annual social and economic cost of serious and organised crime was £37 billion in 2015-16. The government published its serious and organised crime strategy in 2013 and revised it in 2018. The NAO examined the government’s strategic response to serious and organised crime, and the extent that the enablers to successful implementation of the 2018 strategy have been put in place. We examined the work of the Home Office and the NCA, who together oversee and co-ordinate the government’s response. The report does not look in detail at how other government bodies are set up to contribute. It says that serious and organised crime is evolving at a rapid rate, as criminal networks identify new vulnerabilities and adapt their activity in response to law enforcement action and the opportunities offered by new technology. It says that there remain some significant and avoidable shortcomings that may prevent government and its partners from meeting its aim to “rid our society of the harms of serious and organised crime”.