On 18th December, the International Institute of Strategic Studies published an article saying that China has embarked on a major process to achieve civil–military integration and to develop advanced dual-use technologies. In a new report, the IISS and the Mercator Institute for China Studies (MERICS) outline the actions Europe should take to protect its own innovations. The report says that, thanks to this approach to dual-use technology innovation by the Chinese government, the country currently leads the field in certain industries. The report outlines Chinese progress in key dual-use technologies, analysing the main policies and actors driving innovation in each of these sectors and recent developments, as well as cases of cooperation between Chinese and European organisations that have contributed to China’s advancements, where applicable – space and satellites; cyber; quantum technology; AI; automated systems and autonomous vehicles; robotics. It looks at existing European policies and how China access European technologies, including through investment and acquisition, cyber espionage, R+D collaboration and acquiring of talent, and exports to China itself. It makes recommendations including stronger investment screening and export controls, as well improved cyber defences.