ENACT Africa on 7th May published an article saying that beyond the ‘migrant crisis’, Europe should recognise the threat posed by illicit markets in Libya. The head of the Libyan National oil Company has called for European partners to help his country combat fuel smuggling. The practice of smuggling heavily subsidised fuel from Libya is costing the country an estimated US$750million a year. He urged the EU to expand the mandate of its maritime policing initiative, Operation Sophia, to also include fuel smuggling. The most significant development in this respect has been the emergence of large-scale, sea-bound fuel smuggling to Europe and Turkey onboard fuel tankers: particularly off the west coast of Libya. Over the past 7 years, the area has seen the development of significant syndicates headed by militia leaders with various interests in the black economy: from fuel smuggling to weapons, drugs, and human smuggling.