On 1st March, the OECD published this new report which examines governance frameworks to counter illicit trade. It looks at the adequacy and effectiveness of sanctions and penalties applicable, the steps parties engaged in illicit trade take to lower the risk of detection – for example through small (postal, courier and/or internet-enabled) shipments – and the use of free trade zones as hubs for managing trade in illicit products. I t also identifies gaps in enforcement that may need to be addressed. The report provides an overview of selected enforcement issues in BRICS economies (Brazil, China, India, the Russian Federation and South Africa). The report claims that effective governance frameworks, public institutions and international co-operation can improve the ability of countries to respond effectively in a co-ordinated way to counter the “growing scourge” of illicit trade.