The study from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute aims to shed light on the current developments in autonomy in weapon systems and thereby provide important insights for informed international discussions, and should they be regulated within the framework of the 1980 UN Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). “Autonomy” has many definitions and interpretations, and the study says it is already a reality of weapon systems development. A key area examined by the study is the technology that enables weapon systems to acquire targets autonomously. The report aims to help diplomats and members of civil society interested in the issue of lethal autonomous weapons to improve their understanding of the technological foundations of autonomy, and obtain a sense of the speed and trajectory of progress of autonomy in weapon systems. It also provides concrete examples that could be used to start delineating the points at which the advance of autonomy in weapons may raise technical, legal, operational and ethical concerns.